Metabolic and physiological changes during and after vaquejada exercise in horses
ResumoPhysiological and metabolic evaluations of equine sports have been conducted to define parameters or biomarkers for performance evaluation, clinical diagnosis and predict fatigue and overtraining. Actually, the vaquejada is the most important equine sport in Brazil, and these horses are repeatedly submitted to shortduration physical exertion, during 2 or 3 alternate or consecutive days, requiring adequate conditioning for this equestrian modality. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that pulls horses and helper horses undergo physiological and metabolic changes during vaquejada races. Eighteen Quarter Horses were used, including 12 pull horses and 6 helper horses. Hemograms and the following analyses were performed: glucose, lactate, cholesterol, triglycerides, NEFA, total proteins, albumin, creatine kinase, gama glutamyl transferase and cortisol. A heart rate monitor was used to measure the heart rate, velocity and travel distance of each animal. Statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests, with P established at 5%. Pull horses had higher heart rate values, but the velocities attained by the two groups of horses were similar. There was an increase in heart rate, glucose, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol in both pull and helper horses after racing, but these levels returned to resting values 30 minutes after the end of exercise. It was concluded that the vaquejada field test promoted significant changes in haematological, biochemical biomarkers and in the heart rate of both groups of horses.
Azevedo, N.M.S.; Azevedo, M.V.; Lima, P.F.; Manso Filho, H.C. Analysis of tracheal secretion in healthy horses undergoing a vaquejada simulation test. Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 4: 232-238, 2014.
Binda, M.B.; Teixeira, F.A.; Carvalho, R.S.; Macedo, L.P.; Conti, L.M.C.; Manso Filho, H.C.; Coelho, C.S. Effects of 3-barrel racing exercise on electrocardiographic and on blood parameters of quarter horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 47: 71–76, 2016.
Brandi, R.A.; Furtado, C.E.; Martins, E.N.; Freitas, E.V.V.; Lacerda-Neto, J.C.; Queiroz-Neto, A. Efeito de dietas com adição de óleo e do treinamento sobre a atividades muscular de equinos submetidos à prova de resistência. Acta Scientiae Animal Science, 30(3):307-315, 2008. Desmecht D.; Linden A.; Amory H.; Art P.; Lekeux P. Relationship of plasma lactate production to cortisol release following completion of different types of sporting events in horses. Veterinary Research Communication, 20(4):371-379, 1996.
Djurhuus, C.B.; Gravholt, C.H.; Nielsen, S.; Menghel, A.; Christiansen, J.S.; Schmitz, O.E.; Moller, N. Effects of cortisol on lipolysis and regional interstitial glycerol levels in humans. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology Metabolism, 283: E172-E177, 2002.
Godoi, F.N.; Almeida, F.Q.; Migon, E.X.F.; Almeida, H.F.M.; Monteiro, A.B.F.; Santos,T.M. Performance of eventing horses fed high fat diet. Revista Brasileira Zootecnia, 39(2):335-343, 2010.
Hambitzer, R.; Bent, E. Effect of long distance exercise on free fatty acids in blood plasma of Arab horses. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 35:622-625, 1988.
Hunka, M.M.; Lima, L.C.F.L.; Souza, L.A.; Silva, C.J.F.L.; Silva, E.R.R.; Manso, H.E.C.C.C.; Manso Filho, H.C. Heart rate and velocity in vaquejada horses during field tests. Comparative Exercise Physiology, 13(1):2530, 2017.
Judson, G.J.; Frauenfelder, H.C.; Mooney, G.J. Training and blood biochemistry. In: Hinchcliff, K.; Geor, R.; Kaneps, A. Equine exercise physiology. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1983. p.408-415.
Kästner, S.B.R., Feige, K., Weishaupt, M.A.; Auer, J.A. Heart rate and hematological responses of Quarter Horses to a reining competition. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 19(2):127-131, 1999.
Kim, J.; Hinchcliff, K.W.; Yamaguchi, M.; Beard, L.A.; Markert, C.D.; Devor, S.T. Exercise training increases oxidative capacity and attenuates exercise-induced ultrastructural damage in skeletal muscle of aged horses. Journal of Applied Physiology, 98:334-342, 2005.
Li, G.; Lee, P.; Mori, N.; Yamamoto, I.; Arai, T. Long term intensive exercise training induces to a higher plasma malate/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio and increased level of lipid mobolizations in horses. Veterinary Research Communication, 36:149-155,2012.
BRASIL. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. MAPA. Revisão do estudo do complexo do agronegócio do cavalo. Disponível em: http://www.agricultura.gov.br/assuntos/camarassetoriaitematicas/documentos/cama rassetoriais/equideocultura/anosanteriores/revis aodoestudodocomplexodoagronegociodocaval o> acessed 25 nov. 2018. BRASIL. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. MAPA. Manual de boas práticas para o bem-estar animal em competições equestres. Disponível em: <http://www.agricultura.com.br/animal/bemestar-animal>accessed 07feb2017.
Mellor D.J. Operational Details of the Five Domains Model and Its Key Applications to the Assessment and Management of Animal Welfare. Animals, 7(60):1-20, 2017.
Muñoz, A.; Riber, C.; Santisteban, R.; Lucas, R.G.; Castejón, F.M. Effect of training duration and exercise on blood-borne substrates, plasma lactate and enzyme concentrations in Andalusian, Anglo-Arabian and Arabian breeds. Equine Exercise Journal, 34:245-251, 2002.
Nutrient Requirements of Horse, National Research Council, 6th ed. Washington: The National Academy Press,2007,360p.
Piccione, G.; Giannetto, C.; Fazio, F.; Di Mauro, S.; Caola, G. Haematological response to different workload in jumper horses. Bulgarian Journal Veterinary Medicine, 10(4):21-28, 2007.
Piccione, G.; Messina, V.; Bazzano, M.; Gianneto, C.; Fazio, F. Heart rate, net cost of transport, and metabolic power in horse subjected to different physical exercises. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 33:586-589, 2013.
Ramalho, L.O., Caiado, J.C.C., Souza, V.R.C.; Coelho, C.S. Glicemia e concentrações séricas de insulina, triglicérides e cortisol em equinos da raça quarto de milha e mestiços usados em provas de laço em dupla. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, 49: 318-324, 2012.
Rammerstorfer, C., Potter, G.D., Cudd, T.A., Gibbs, P.G., Vamer, D.D.; Householder, D.D. Physiological responses of mature Quarter Horses to reining training when fed conventional and fat supplemented diets. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 18(3):175-183, 1998.
Rizza, R.A.; Manadrino, L.J.; Gerich, J.E. Cortisolinduced insulin resistance in man: impaired suppression of glucose production and stimulation of glucose utilization due to a postreceptor detect of insulin action. Journal Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 54:131138, 1982.
Santiago, T.A.; Manso, H.E.C.C.C.; Abreu, J.M.G.; Melo, S.K.M.; Manso Filho, H.C. Blood biomarkers of the horse after field Vaquejada test. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 23 (3):769-774, 2013.
Sousa, R.A.; Silva, G. A.; Rêgo, G.M.S.; Gonçalves Neto, J.R.; Gottardi, F.P.; Machado, L.P. Effect of vaquejada exercise on the physiological and biochemical profiles of sporadic competitors and atletic horses. Acta Veterinaria Brasilica, 12: 17-23,2018.
Souza, L.A.; Hunka, M.M.; Nery, P.C.R.; Coelho, C.S.; Manso, H.E.C.C.C.; Manso Filho, H.C. The effect of repeated barrel racing on blood biomarkers and physiological parameters in Quarter Horses. Comparative Exercise Physiology, 14 (1): 47-54, 2018.
Tateo, A., Valle, E., Padalino, B., Centoducati, P., Bergero, D. Change in some physiologic variables induced by Italian traditional conditioning in Standarbred yearling. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 28: 743750,2008.
Tadich, T.A.; Araya, O.; Solar, F.; Ansoleaga, N.; Nicol, C.J. Description of the responses of some blood Constituents to Rodeo exercise in Chilean Creole horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 174-181,2013. Valberg, S.; Johnson, L.; Lindholm, A.; Holmgren, N. Muscle histopathology and aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase and myoglobin changes with exercise in horses with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis. Equine Veterinary Journal, 25:11-16, 1993.